Animal Reproduction (AR)
Animal Reproduction (AR)
Conference Paper

Achievements and unmet promises of assisted reproduction technologies in large animals: a personal perspective

Cesare Galli

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This paper gives an overview of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) in livestock species coming from the author’s direct experience and contribution to the development of several of them. The assessment is conducted on the basis of the progress achieved since the early eighties and the impact on the clinical/practical use of such procedures. Artificial insemination (AI) is still the leading technology used on a large scale in livestock with most favourable cost benefit ratio. All the other ARTs have niche applications compared to AI. Significant progress has been achieved in embryo culture, somatic cell nuclear transfer and on the identification of the many unknown variables affecting the success rate, while in areas such as superovulation, oocyte maturation, IVF, embryonic stem cells and cryopreservation progress has been limited or absent. It is the opinion of the author that ARTs have reached a plateau whereby only minimal improvement of efficiency can be achieved. Significant advances can only come from major breakthrough in the understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms.


large animals, oocytes, embryos, stem cells, SCNT.


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