Animal Reproduction (AR)
Animal Reproduction (AR)
Congress Paper

Developments of reproductive management and biotechnology in the pig

Olli Peltoniemi, Stefan Björkman, Marianne Oropeza-Moe, Claudio Oliviero

Downloads: 0
Views: 18


This review aims to describe changes in production environment, management tools and technology to alleviate problems seen with the present hyperprolific sow model. Successful parturition in the pig includes the possibility to express adequate maternal behaviour, rapid expulsion of piglets, complete expulsion of placenta, elimination of uterine contamination and debris, neonatal activity and colostrum intake. We focus on management of large litters, including maternal behaviour, ease of parturition, colostrum production, piglet quality parameters and intermittent suckling. There are also some interesting developments in technology to assess colostrum and immune state of the piglet. These developments may be utilized to improve the success rate of reproductive management around farrowing, lactation and after weaning. We also discuss new insights in how to examine the health of the mammary gland, uterus and ovaries of hyperprolific sows. Finally, we assess the latest developments on breeding and technology of hyperprolific sows, including artificial insemination (AI), real-time ultrasound of the genital tract and embryo transfer (ET). We conclude that 1) for the sow to produce sufficient colostrum, both the behavioural and physiological needs of the sow need to be met before and after parturition. Furthermore, 2) new ultrasound and biopsy technology can be effectively applied for accurate diagnosis of inflammatory processes of the udder and uterus and timing of AI regarding ovulation to improve insemination efficiency. Finally, 3) developments in cryopreservation of germ cells and embryos appear promising but lack of valid oocyte collection techniques and nonsurgical ET techniques are a bottleneck to commercial ET. These latest developments in management of parturition and reproductive technology are necessary to cope with the increasing challenges associated with very large litter sizes.


large litter, sow, piglet, management, biotechnology.


Akdag F, Arslan S, Demir H. 2009. The Effect of parity and litter size on birth weight and the effect of birth weight variations on weaning weight and pre-weaning survival in piglet. J Anim Vet Adv, 8:2133-2138.

Algers B, Uvnäs-Moberg K. 2007. Maternal behavior in pigs. Horm Behav, 52:78-85.

Antosik P, Jaśkowski JM, Jeziorkowski M, Lechnowicz J. 2007. The influence of vaccum pressure on quality and number of recovered oocytes aspirated from ovarian follicles of swine and cows. Arch Tierz Dummerstorf, 50:260-266.

Baer C, Bilkei G. 2005. Ultrasonographic and gross pathological findings in the mammary glands of weaned sows having suffered recidiving mastitis metritis agalactia. Reprod Domest Anim, 40(6):544-547.

Beaulieu AD, Aalhus JL, Williams NH, Patience JF. 2010. Impact of piglet birth weight, birth order, and litter size on subsequent growth performance, carcass quality, muscle composition, and eating quality of pork. J Anim Sci, 88:2767-2778.

Berthelot F, Martinat-Botté F, Locatelli A, Perreau C, Terqui M. 2000. Piglets Born after Vitrification of Embryos Using the Open Pulled Straw Method. Cryobiology, 41:116-124.

Bertoldo MJ, Holyoake PK, Evans G, Grupen CG. 2012. Seasonal variation in the ovarian function of sows. Reprod Fertil Dev, 24:822-834.

Bertoldo MJ, Nadal-Desbarats L, Ge´rard N, Dubois A, Holyoake PK, Grupen CG. 2013. Differences in the metabolomic signatures of porcine follicular fluid collected from environments associated with good and poor oocyte quality. Reproduction, 146:221-231.

Besenfelder U, Mödl J, Müller M, Brem G. 1997. Endoscopic embryo collection and embryo transfer into the oviduct and the uterus of pigs. Theriogenology, 5:1051-1060.

Björkman S, Oliviero C, Hasan S, Peltoniemi O. 2017a. Mammary gland edema as a cause of postpartum dysgalactia in the sow-a case report. Reprod Domest Anim, 52:72.

Björkman S, Yun J, Niku M, Oliviero C, Soede NM, Peltoniemi OAT. 2017b. Serial transvaginal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the porcine corpus luteum in vivo. Reprod Fertil Dev, 29:931-939.

Björkman S, Oliviero C, Rajala-Schultz PJ, Soede NM, Peltoniemi OAT. 2017c. The effect of litter size, parity, farrowing duration on placenta expulsion and retention in sows. Theriogenology, 92:36-44.

Björkman S, Grahofer A, Han T, Oliviero C, Peltoniemi O. 2018a. Severe udder edema as a cause of reduced colostrum quality and milk production in sows - a case report. In European Symposium of Porcine Health Management,10th, 2018, Barcelona, Spain.

Björkman S, Han T, Oliviero C, Peltoniemi O. 2018b. Biopsy of mammary gland in sows: A tool for studying colostrum production. Reprod Domest Anim, 53:111-112.

Björkman S, Oliviero C, Kauffold J, Soede NM, Peltoniemi OAT. 2018c. Prolonged parturition and impaired placenta expulsion increase the risk of postpartum metritis and delay uterine involution in sows. Theriogenology, 106:87-92.

Bontempo V, Sciannimanico D, Pastorelli G, Rossi R, Rosi F, Corino C. 2004. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid positively affects immunologic variables in lactating sows and piglets. J Nutr, 134:817-824.

Brüssow KP, Rátky J. 1996. Endoscopic collection of porcine embryos. Reprod Dom Anim, 31:711-715.

Brüssow KP, Torner H, Rátky J, Hunter MG, Nürnberg G. 1997. Ovum pick up in swine: The influence of aspiration vacuum pressure on oocyte recovery from preovulatory follicles. Acta Vet Hung, 45:189-196.

Brüssow KP, Torner H, Kanitz W, Rátky J. 2000. In vitro technologies related to pig embryo transfer. Reprod Nutrit Dev, 40(5):469-480.

Brüssow KP, Rátky J, Antosik P, Kempisty B, Jaśkowski JM. 2018. Embryo transfer in swine - an indispensable key for the application of reproductive techniques. Electronic Journal of Polish Agricultural Universities, 21(3):3. DOI:10.30825/5.EJPAU.78.2018.21.3

Cartee RE, Powe TA, Gray BW, Hudson RS, Kuhlers DL. 1986. Ultrasonographic evaluation of normal boar testicles. Am J Vet Res, 47(12):2543-2548.

Clark SG, Althouse GC. 2002. B-mode ultrasonographic examination of the accessory sex glands of boars. Theriogenology, 57(8):2003-2013.

Clark SG, Schaeffer DJ, Althouse GC. 2003. B-mode ultrasonographic evaluation of paired testicular diameter of mature boars in relation to average total sperm numbers. Theriogenology, 60(6):1011-1023.

Chen TY, Turpin DL, Knight AL, Bouwman EG, Soede NM, Kirkwood RN, Langendijk P. 2017. Lactational oestrus and reproductive performance following a delayed limited nursing schedule in primiparous sows. Theriogenology, 96:42-48.

Corino C, Pastorelli G, Rosi F, Bontempo V, Rossi R. 2009. Effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid supplementation in sows on performance and immunoglobulin concentration in piglets. J Anim Sci, 87:2299-2305.

Cuello C, Martinez CA, Nohalez A, Parrilla I, Roca J, Gil MA, Martinez EA. 2016. Effective vitrification and warming of porcine embryos using a pH-stable, chemically defined medium. Sci Rep, 6:33915. Doi: 10.1038/srep33915.

Curtis SE. 1970. Environmental-thermoregulatory interactions and neonatal piglet survival. J Anim Sci, 31:576-587.

Da Silva CLA, Mulder HA, Broekhuijse MLWJ, Kemp B, Soede NM, Knol EF. 2018. Relationship between the estimated breeding values for litter traits at birth and ovarian and embryonic traits and their additive genetic variance in gilts at 35 days of pregnancy. Front Genet, 9:111.

Decaluwé R, Maes D, Declerck I, Cools A, Wuyts B, De Smet S, Janssens G. 2013. Changes in back fat thickness during late gestation predict colostrum yield in sows. Animal, 7:1999-2007.

De Rensis F, Kirkwood RN. 2016. Control of estrus and ovulation: Fertility to timed insemination of gilts and sows. Theriogenology, 86:1460-1466

Declerck I, Sarrazin S, Dewulf J, Maes D. 2017. Sow and piglet factors determining variation of colostrum intake between and within litters. Animal, 11:1336-1343.

Devillers N, Farmer C, Le Dividich J and Prunier A. 2007. Variability of colostrum yield and colostrum intake in pigs. Animal, 1:1033-1041.

Devillers N, Le Dividich J, Prunier A. 2011. Influence of colostrum intake on piglet survival and immunity. Animal, 5:1605-1612.

Difilippo E, Bettonvil M, Willems RH, Braber S, Fink-Gremmels J, Jeurink PV, Schoterman MH, Gruppen H, Schols HA. 2015. Oligosaccharides in Urine, Blood, and Feces of Piglets Fed Milk Replacer Containing Galacto-oligosaccharides. J Agric Food Chem, 63(50):10862-10872. Doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.5b04449.

Donovan TS, Dritz SS. 2000. Effect of split nursing on variation in pig growth from birth to weaning. J Am Vet Med Assoc,1:217(1):79-81.

Farmer C, Quesnel H. 2009. Nutritional, hormonal, and environmental effects on colostrum in sows. J Anim Sci, 87:56-64.

Farmer C, Maes D, Peltoniemi OAT. 2019. Mammary system. In: Zimmerman, Karriker, Ramirez, Schwartz, Stevenson and Zhang (Ed.): Diseases of swine, 11th ed. Wiley-Blackwell: Nova Jersey, EUA, pp.313-338.

Feyera T, Pedersen T, Krogh U, Foldager L, Theil P. 2018. Impact of sow energy status during farrowing on farrowing kinetics, frequency of stillborn piglets, and farrowing assistance. J Anim Sci, 96:2320-2331. Foisnet A, Farmer C, David C and Quesnel H. 2010. Relationships between colostrum production by primiparous sows and sow physiology around parturition. J Anim Sci, 88:1672-1683.

Ford JJ, Wise TH. 2011. Assessment of pubertal development of boars derived from ultrasonographic determination of testicular diameter. Theriogenology, 75(2):241-247.

Gerjets I, Kemper N. 2009. Coliform mastitis in sows: a review. J Swine Health and Prod, 17(2):97-105.

Funahashi D, Day BN. 1993. Effect of follicular fluid at fertilization in vitro on sperm penetration in pig oocytes. J Reprod Fertil, 99:97-103.

Galvin JM, Killian DB, Stewart ANV. 1994. A procedure for successful nonsurgical embryo transfer in swine. Theriogenology, 41:1279-1289.

García-Vázquez FA, Mellagi APG, Ulguim RR, Hernandez-Caravaca I, Llamas-Lopez PJ, Bortolozzo FP. 2019. Post-cervical artificial insemination in porcine: The technique that came to stay. Theriogenology, 129:37-45.

Gerritsen G, Soede NM, Langendijk P, Hazeleger W, Kemp B. 2008. The Intermittent Suckling Regimen in Pigs: Consequences for Reproductive Performance of Sows. Reprod Dom Anim, 43(Suppl. 5):29-35.

Gil MA, Nohalez A, Martinez CA, Ake-Villanueva JR, Centurion-Castro F, Maside C, Cuello C, Roca J, Parrilla I, Martinez EA. 2017. Effects of meiotic inhibitors and gonadotropins on porcine oocytes in vitro maturation, fertilization and development. Reprod Domest Anim, 52:873-880.

Gu Z, Gao Y, Lin B, Zhong Z, Liu Z, Wang C, Li B. 2011. Impacts of freedom farrowing pen design on sow behaviours and performance. Prev Vet Med, 102:296-303.

Han T, Borkman S, Oliviero C, Peltoniemi O. 2018. Mammary gland biopsy does not affect colostrum yield of sows: a pilot study. Reprod Domest Anim, 53:144.

Hasan S, Junnikkala S, Valros A, Peltoniemi O, Oliviero C. 2016. Validation of Brix refractometer to estimate colostrum immunoglobulin G content and composition in the sow. Animal, 10:1728-1733.

Hasan S, Saha S, Junnikkala S, Orro T, Peltoniemi O, Oliviero C. 2018. Late gestation diet supplementation of resin acid-enriched composition increases sow colostrum immunoglobulin G content, piglet colostrum intake and improve sow gut microbiota. Animal, 13:1599-1606. Doi: 10.1017/S1751731118003518.

Hasan S, Orro T, Junnikkala S, Valros A, Peltoniemi O, Oliviero C. 2019. Factors affecting sow colostrum yield and composition, and their impact on piglet growth and health. Livest Sci, In press.

Hazeleger W, van der Meulen J, van der Lende T. 1989. A method of transcervical embryo collection in the pig. Theriogenology, 32:727-734.

Hazeleger W, Kemp B. 1994. Farrowing rate and litter size after transcervical embryo transfer in sows. Reprod Domest Anim, 29:481-487.

Herlta C, Starka R, Sigmarsson H L, Kauffold J. 2018. Feasibility of transabdominal Doppler sonography for studying uterine blood flow characteristics in cycling gilts. Tierärztliche Praxis G: Großtiere/Nutztiere, 46(03):154-163.

Herpin P, Hulin JC, Le Dividich J, Fillaut M. 2001. Effect of oxygen inhalation at birth on the reduction of early postnatal mortality in pigs. J Anim Sci, 79:5-10.

Hoy S, Lutter C, Wähner M, Puppe B. 1994. The effect of birth weight on the early postnatal vitality of piglets. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr, 101:393-396.

Hurley W. 2015. Composition of sow colostrum and milk. Chapter 9. In: Farmer, C. (Ed.) The gestating and lactating sow. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, The Netherlands, pp.193-229.

Ikoma E, Suzuki C, Ishihara Y, Komura K, Ookoda T, Maruno H. 2014. Transvaginal ultrasound-guided ovum pick up (OPU) in Berkshire breed during natural estrous cycle. JPN J Swine Sci, 51(2): 45-53.

Islas-Fabila P, Mota-Rojas D, Martínez-Burnes J, Mora-Medina P, González-Lozano M, Roldan-Santiago P. 2018. Physiological and metabolic responses in newborn piglets associated with the birth order. Anim Reprod Sci, 197:247-256.

Jensen P. 1986. Observations of the maternal behaviour of free-ranging domestic pigs. Appl Anim Behav Sci 16:131-142.

Kaiser M, Jacobsen S, Haubro-Andersen P, Bækbo P, Cerón J, Dahl J, Escribano D, Jacobson M. 2018a. Inflammatory markers before and after farrowing in healthy sows and in sows affected with postpartum dysgalactia syndrome. BMC Vet Res, 14:83.

Kaiser M, Jacobsen S, Haubro-Andersen P, Bækbo P, Cerón J, Dahl J, Escribano D, Theil P, Jacobson M. 2018b. Hormonal and metabolic indicators before and after farrowing in sows affected with postpartum dysgalactia syndrome. BMC Vet Res, 14:334.

Kauffold J, Althouse GC. 2007. An update on the use of B-mode ultrasonography in female pig reproduction. Theriogenology, 67(5):901-911.

Kauffold J, Kessler M, Richter A, Beynon N, Wehrend A. 2011. Bmode Ultrasound and GreyScale Analysis of the Epididymis in Boars, and the Relationship to Semen Parameters. Reprod Domest Anim, 46(1):108-113.

Kauffold J, Wehrend A. 2014. Fertilitätsstörungen beim weiblichen Schwein. Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe G: Großtiere/Nutztiere, 42(03):179-186.

Kemp B and Soede N. 2012. Reproductive Issues in Welfare-Friendly Housing Systems in Pig Husbandry: A review. Reprod Domest Anim, 47 (Suppl 5):51-57.

Kielland C, Rootwelt V, Reksen O, Framstad T. 2015. The association between immunoglobulin G in sow colostrum and piglet plasma. J Anim Sci, 93:4453-4462.

Kirkden RD, Broom DM, Andersen IL. 2013. Invited review: piglet mortality: management solutions. J Anim Sci, 7:3361-89. doi: 10.2527/jas.2012-5637.

Klobasa F and Butler JE. 1987. Absolute and relative concentrations of immunoglobulins G, M, and A, and albumin in the lacteal secretion of sows of different lactation numbers. Am J Vet Res, 48:176-182.

Kobayashi K, Hayashi S, Ohtubo Y, Honda A, Mizuno J, Hirano S. 1989. Theriogenology, 32(1):123-129.

Kvasnitski AV. 1950. The research on interbreed ova transfer in pigs. Social Livest Breed J, 12-15.

Langendijk P. 2015. Early gestation feeding and management for optimal reproductive performance. In The gestating and lactating sow. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, The Netherlands, pp.1145-1153. Doi: 10.3920/978-90-8686-803-2_2.

Laurincik J, Rath D, Niemann H. 1994. Differences in pronucleus formation and first cleavage following in vitro fertilization between pig oocytes matured in vivo and in vitro . J Reprod Fertil, 102(2):277-84.

Li J, Rieke A, Day BN, Prather RS. 1996. Technical note: porcine non-surgical embryo transfer. J Anim Sci, 74(9):2263-8.

Manjarin R, Montano YA, Kirkwood RN, Bennet DC, Petrovski KR. 2018. Effect of piglet separation from dam at birth on colostrum uptake. Can J Vet Res, 82: 239-242.

Martineau GP, Farmer C, Peltoniemi OAT. 2012. Mammary system. In: Diseases of swine (10th edition). Zimmerman JJ, Locke A, Karriker AR, Ramirez A, Schwartz KJ, Stevenson GW (Ed). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Wiley-Blackwell, Ames, Iowa, USA, pp.270-293.

Martinez EA, Vazquez JM, Roca J, Lucas X, Gil MA, Parrilla I, Vazquez JL, Day BN. 2002. Minimum number of spermatozoa required for normal fertility after deep intra- uterine insemination in non-sedated sows. Reproduction, 123:163-170.

Martinez EA, Caamano JN, Gil MA, Rieke A, McCauley TC, Cantley TC, Vazquez JM, Roca J, Vazquez JL, Didion BA, Murphy CN, Prather RS, Day BN. 2004. Successful nonsurgical deep uterine embryo transfer in pigs. Theriogenology, 61:137-146.

Martinez EA, Vazquez JM, Parrilla I, Cuello C, Gil MA, Rodriguez-Martinez H, Roca J, Vazquez JL. 2006. Incidence of unilateral fertilizations after low dose deep intrauterine insemination in spontaneously ovulating sows under field conditions. Reprod Domest Anim, 41:41-47.

Martinez EA, Nohalez A, Martinez CA, Parrilla I, Vila J, Colina I, Diaz M, Reixach J, Vazquez JL, Roca J, Cuello C, Gil MA. 2016. The Recipients' Parity Does Not Influence Their Reproductive Performance Following Non-Surgical Deep Uterine Porcine Embryo Transfer. Reprod Domest Anim, 51(1):123-9. doi: 10.1111/rda.12654. Epub 2015 Dec 14.

Martynenko NA, Tchjrkov AG, Denisjuk PV, Korennoij SN. 2004. Transcervical transplantation of porcine embryos and neutralization of superinduction using inseminated recipients. Vistnik Poltavskoij Dershavnoij Agrarnoij Akademii, 2:13-17.

Matheson SM, Walling GA, Edwards SA. 2018. Genetic selection against intrauterine growth retardation in piglets:a problem at the piglet level with a solution at the sow level. Genetics Selection Evolution, 50(1):46. Doi:10.1186/s12711-018-0417-7.

van Nieuwamerongen SE, Bolhuis JE, van der Peet-Schwering CMC, Soede NM. 2014. A review of sow and piglet behaviour and performance in group housing systems for lactating sows. Animal, 8:448-460.

Niwa K. 1993. Effectiveness of in vitro maturation and in vitro fertilization techniques in pigs. J Reprod Fertil Suppl, 48:49-59.

Nohalez A, Martinez CA, Parrilla I, Roca J, Gil MA, Rodriguez-Martinez H, Martinez EA, Cuello C. 2018. Exogenous ascorbic acid enhances vitrification survival of porcine in vitro -developed blastocysts but fails to improve the in vitro embryo production outcomes. Theriogenology, 113:113-119.

Okuyama MW, Sugiura T, Moriyoshi M, Yamashita K, Tamura J, Katagiri S. 2017. A transvaginal endoscopy-based technique for performing ovarian examinations in sows. J Reprod Dev, 63:617-622.

Oliviero C, Heinonen M, Valros A, Halli O, Peltoniemi OAT. 2008. Effect of the environment on the physiology of the sow during late pregnancy, farrowing and early lactation. Anim Reprod Sci, 105:365-377.

Oliviero C, Heinonen M, Valros A, Peltoniemi OAT. 2010. Environmental and sow-related factors affecting the duration of farrowing. Anim Reprod Sci, 119:85-91.

Oliviero C. 2013. Management to improve neonate piglet survival. In Control of pig reproduction IX. H Rodriqez-Martinez, N Soede, W Flowers (Eds.). Leicestershire, United Kingdom: Context Products Ltd, 345p.

Oliviero C, Kothe S, Heinonen M, Valros A, Peltoniemi O. 2013. Prolonged duration of farrowing is associated with subsequent decreased fertility in sows. Theriogenology, 79(7):1095-1099.

Oliviero C, Junnikkala S and Peltoniemi OAT. 2019. The challenge of large litters on the immune system of the sow and the piglets. Reprod Domest Anim. In press.

Peltoniemi OAT, Love RJ, Heinonen M, TuovinenV, Saloniemi H. 1999. Seasonal and management effects on fertility of the sow:a descriptive study. Anim Reprod Sci, 55:47-61.

Peltoniemi OAT, Alm K, Andersson M. 2009. Uterine insemination with a standard AI dose in a sow pool system. Reprod Domest Anim, 44(3):414-418.

Peltoniemi OAT, Björkman S, Oliviero C. 2016. Parturition effects on reproductive health in the gilt and sow. Reprod Domest Anim, 51:36-47.

Peltoniemi O, Kemp B. 2019. Infertility in the pig and the control of pig herd fertility. In Noakes DE, Parkinson TJ, England GCW (Eds.), Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics. 10 ed. Elsevier. p. 581-592.

Petersen B, Lucas-Hahn A, Oropeza M, Hornen N, Lemme E, Hassel P, Queisser AL, Niemann H. 2008. Development and Evaluation of a Highly Efficient Protocol of Porcine Somatic Cloning Using Preovulatory Embryo Transfer in Peripubertal Gilts. Cloning and Stem Cells, 10:355-362.

Pinho RO, Camilo B S, Lima DMA, Villadiego F A C, Vergara JCM, Shiomi HH, Guimarães, JD. 2018. The use of ultrasonography in the reproductive evaluation of boars. Reprod Domest Anim, 53(2):393-400.

Porter P. 1969. Transfer of immunoglobulins IgG, IgA and IgM to lacteal secretions in the parturient sow and their absorption by the neonatal piglet. Biochim Biophys Acta, 181:381-392.

Quesnel H, Brossard L, Valancogne A, Quiniou N. 2008. Influence of some sow characteristics on within-litter variation of piglet birth weight. Animal, 2:1842-1849.

Quesnel H. 2011. Colostrum production by sows:Variability of colostrum yield and immunoglobulin G concentrations. Animal, 5:1546-1553.

Quesnel H, Farmer C, Theil PK. 2015. Colostrum and milk production. In The Gestating and lactating sow. C Farmer (Ed), Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, The Netherlands, pp. 173-192.

Quigley JD, Lago A, Chapman C, Erickson P, Polo J. 2013. Evaluation of the Brix refractometer to estimate immunoglobulin G concentration in bovine colostrum. J Dairy Sci, 96:1148-1155.

Rátky J, Brüssow KP, Solti L, Torner H, Sarlós P. 2001. Ovarian response, embryo recovery and results of embryo transfer in a Hugarian native pig breed. Theriogenology, 56:969-978.

Roca J, Parrilla I, Bolarin A, Martinez EA, Rodriguez-Martinez H. 2016. Will AI in pigs become more efficient? Theriogenology, 86:187-193.

Romar R, Coy P, Rath D. 2012. Maturation conditions and boar affect timing of cortical reaction in porcine oocytes. Theriogenology, 15:1126-1139.

Rooke JA, Bland, IM. 2002. The acquisition of passive immunity in the new-born piglet. Livest Prod Sci, 78:13-23.

Rua MAS, Quirino CR, Ribeiro RB, Carvalho ECQ, Bernadino MLA, Bartholazzi Junior A, Cipagalta LF, Barreto MAP. 2018. Diagnostic methods to detect uterus illnesses in mares. Theriogenology, 114:285-292. Doi:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2018.03.042.

Saragusty J, Arav A. 2011. Current progress in oocyte and embryo cryopreservation by slow freezing and vitrification. Reproduction, 141:1-19.

Schmitt O, Baxter EM, Boyle LA, O'Driscoll K. 2019a. Nurse sow strategies in the domestic pig: I. Consequences for selected measures of sow welfare. Animal,13(3):580-589. Doi:10.1017/S175173111800160X.

Schmitt O, Baxter EM, Boyle LA, O'Driscoll K. 2019b. Nurse sow strategies in the domestic pig:II. Consequences for piglet growth, suckling behaviour and sow nursing behaviour. Animal, 13(3):590-599. Doi:10.1017/S1751731118001702.

Senger PL. 2012. The organization & function of the female reproductive tract. In Pathways to pregnancy & parturition, 3.ed. Current Conceptions Inc., Redmond, OR, USA, pp.10-43.

Soede NM, Langendijk P, Kemp B. 2011. Reproductive cycles in pigs. Animal Rep Sci, 124(3-4):251-258.

Soede NM, Laurenssen B, Abrahamse-Berkeveld M, Gerritsen R, Dirx-Kuijkend N, Langendijk P, Kemp B. 2012. Timing of lactational oestrus in intermittent suckling regimes:Consequences for sow fertility. Anim Reprod Sci, 130:74-81.

Soede NM, Kemp B. 2015. Best practices in the lactating and weaned sow to optimize reproductive physiology and performance. In The gestating and lactating sow. Wageningen, The Netherlands: Wageningen Academic Publishers, pp.99-106.

Soriano-Úbeda C, García-Vázquez FA, Aguirregomezcorta R, Matás C. 2017. Improving porcine in vitro fertilization output by simulating the oviductal environment. Nature Scientific Reports, 7:43616.| Doi:10.1038/srep4361.

Spiegel F, Spiegel S, von Altrock A, Verspohl J, Seehusen F, Wendt M. 2017. Occurrence of bacteria in milk samples and biopsy samples of the mammary gland from health sows. In Proceedings of the ninth European Symposium of Porcine Health Management, CZECH-IN, 9th, May 3 to 5, Prague, Czech Republic.

Smit M, Spencer J, Almeida F, Patterson J, Chiarini-Garcia H, Dyck M, Foxcroft G. 2013. Consequences of a low litter birth weight phenotype for postnatal lean growth performance and neonatal testicular morphology in the pig. Animal, 7:1681-1689. Doi:10.1017/ S1751731113001249.

Stark R, Herlt C, Sigmarsson HL, Kauffold J. 2019. Feasibility of transabdominal Doppler ultrasonography for studying ovarian blood flow characteristics in cycling gilts. Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere, 47(02):77-85.

Sumransap P, Tummaruk P, Kunavongkrit A. 2007. Sperm distribution in the reproductive tract of sows after intrauterine insemination. Reprod Domest Anim, 42:113-117.

Tummaruk P, Sumransap P, Techakumphu M, Kunavongkrit A. 2007. Distribution of spermatozoa and embryos in the female reproductive tract after unilateral deep intra uterine insemination in the pig. Reprod Domest Anim, 42:603-609.

Tummaruk P, Sang-Gassanee K. 2013. Effect of farrowing duration, parity number and the type of anti-inflammatory drug on postparturient disorders in sows:a clinical study. Trop Anim Health Prod, 45(4):1071-1077.

Vallet J, Miles J, Rempel L. 2013. A simple novel measure of passive transfer of maternal immunoglobulin is predictive of preweaning mortality in piglets. Vet J, 195:91-97.

Watson PF, Behan JR. 2002. Intrauterine insemination of sows with reduced sperm numbers:results of a commercially based field trial. Theriogenology, 57:1683 -1693.

Webel SK, Peters JB, Anderson LL. 1970. Synchronous and asynchronous transfer of embryos in the pig. J Anim Sci, 30:565-568.

Wilson ME, Biensen NJ, Youngs CR, Ford SP. 1998. Development of Meishan and Yorkshire littermate conceptuses in either a Meishan or Yorkshire uterine environment to day 90 of gestation and to term. Biol Reprod, 58:905-910.

Yao W, Li J, jun Wang J, Zhou W, Wang Q, Zhu R, Wang F, Thacker P. 2012. Effects of dietary ratio of n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on immunoglobulins, cytokines, fatty acid composition, and performance of lactating sows and suckling piglets. J Anim Sci Biotechn, 3:43.

Yeste M, Rodríguez-Gil JE, Bonet S. 2016. Artificial insemination with frozen-thawed boar sperm. Mol Reprod Dev, 84:802-813.

Yonemura I, Fujino Y, Irie S, Miura Yl. 1996. Transcervical transfer of porcine embryos under practical conditions. J Reprod Dev, 42:89-94.

Yuan Y, Krisher RL. 2012. In vitro maturation (IVM) of porcine oocytes. Methods Mol Biol, 825:183-98. Doi:10.1007/978-1-61779-436-0_14.

Yun J, Swan KM, Vienola K, Kim YY, Oliviero C, Peltoniemi OAT, Valros A. 2014. Farrowing environment has an impact on sow metabolic status and piglet colostrum intake in early lactation. Livest Sci, 163:120-125.

Yun J, Björkman S, Pöytäkangas M, Peltoniemi OAT. 2017. The effects of ovarian biopsy and blood sampling methods on salivary cortisol and behaviour in sows. Res Vet Sci, 114:80-85.

Zheng C, Jian-Tao Z, Hai-Feng L, Hong-Bin W. 2016. Laparoscopic Embryo Transfer in Pigs: Knowledge for Surgical Procedures. J Northeast Agric Univ (Engl Ed), 23:52-58.

5d52bce20e88258252daee82 animreprod Articles
Links & Downloads

Anim Reprod

Share this page
Page Sections