Animal Reproduction (AR)
Animal Reproduction (AR)
Original Articles

Effect of timing of artificial insemination in relation to onset of standing estrus on pregnancy per AI in Nili-Ravi buffalo

Umair Riaz, Mubbashar Hassan, Ali Husnain, Muhammad Ilyas Naveed, Jaswant Singh, Nasim Ahmad

Downloads: 9
Views: 1398


The aim of the present study was to determine the optimum time of artificial insemination after the beginning of standing estrus in buffalo. Nili-Ravi buffalo (n = 109) during breeding season were exposed to teaser bull at 12 hours interval to determine the standing heat (0 h). Buffalo were randomly allocated to different time groups and a single artificial insemination was performed either at 0 h (n = 30), 12 h (n = 27), 24 h (n = 28) or 36 h (n = 24). In a subset of buffalo (n = 38) ultrasonography was performed, twice daily from 0 h (onset of standing heat) to determine the time of ovulation. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed 35-40 days after AI. Results revealed that mean time of ovulation from onset of standing heat was 34.7 ± 0.96 h (range 30 to 42 h). Higher (P < 0.05) pregnancy per AI were achieved in buffalo when inseminated at 24 h (15/28; 53%) compared to 0 h (8/30; 26%) and 36 h (3/24; 13%). Pregnancy per AI, was in-between, in buffalo, inseminated at 12 h (10/27; 37%) and did not differ (P > 0.05) with those bred either at 24 h or 0 h. The odds ratio further confirmed that the occurrence of pregnancy per AI was two times higher in buffalo inseminated at 24 h as compared to those at 12 h. It is concluded that optimal pregnancy per AI can be achieved when buffalo are bred artificially 24 h after the onset of standing heat.


Nili-Ravi buffalo, timing of insemination, standing heat, pregnancy per AI.


Andrabi SM, Ahmad N, Abbas A, Anzar M. 2001. Effect of two different antibiotic combinations on fertility of frozen buffalo and Sahiwal bull semen. Pak Vet J, 21:166-169.

Andrabi SM. 2009. Factors affecting the quality of cryopreserved buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull spermatozoa. Reprod Domest Anim, 44:552-569.

Anzar M, Farooq U, Mirza M, Shahab M, Ahmad N. 2003. Factors affecting the efficiency of artificial insemination in cattle and buffalo in Punjab Pakistan. Pak Vet J, 23:106-113.

Arshad U, Qayyum A, Hassan M, Husnain A, Sattar A, Ahmad N. 2017. Effect of resynchronization with GnRH or progesterone (P4) intravaginal device (CIDR) on Day 23 after timed artificial insemination on cumulative pregnancy and embryonic losses in CIDR-GnRH synchronized Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Theriogenology, 103:104-109.

Baruselli PS, Amaral R, Barufi FB, Valentim R, Marques MO. 2001. Lecirelin and buserelin (gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonists) are equally effective for fixed time insemination in buffalo. Braz J Vet.Res Anim Sci, 38:142-145.

Bedford J. 1983. Significance of the need for sperm capacitation before fertilization in eutherian mammals. Biol Reprod, 28:108-120.

Cockrill WR. 1974. The husbandry and health of the domestic buffalo. FAO, Rome, 993p.

de Araujo Berber RC, Madureira EH. Baruselli PS. 2002. Comparison of two Ovsynch protocols (GnRH versus LH) for fixed timed insemination in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Theriogenology, 57:1421-1430.

Drost M. 2007. Bubaline versus bovine reproduction. Theriogenology, 68:447-449.

Foote RH. 2002. The history of artificial insemination: Selected notes and notables. J Anim Sci, 80:1-10.

Hawk H. 1987. Transport and fate of spermatozoa after insemination of cattle. J Dairy Sci, 70:1487-1503.

Hunter R, Greve T. 1997. Could artificial insemination of cattle be more fruitful? Penalties associated with ageing eggs. Reprod Domest Anim, 32:137-141.

Hunter R, Wilmut. 1983. The rate of functional sperm transport into the oviducts of mated cows. Anim Reprod Sci, 5:167-173.

Kanai Y, Shimizu H. 1983. Characteristics of the estrous cycle of the Swamp buffalo under temperate conditions. Theriogenology, 19:593-602.

López-Gatius F. 2012. Factors of a noninfectious nature affecting fertility after artificial insemination in lactating dairy cows. A review. Theriogenology, 77:1029-1041.

Moioli B, Napolitano F, Puppo S, Barile V, Terzano G. 1998. Patterns of oestrus, time of LH release and ovulation and effects of time of artificial insemination in Mediterranean buffalo cows. Anim Sci, 66:87-91.

Nalbandov A, Casida L. 1942. Ovulation and its relation to estrus in cows. J Anim Sci, 1:189-198.

Naseer Z, Ahmad E, Singh J, Ahmad N. 2011. Fertility following CIDR based synchronization regimens in anoestrous Nili‐Ravi buffaloes. Reprod Domest Anim, 46:814-817.

Neglia G, Gasparrini B, Di Palo R, De Rosa C, Zicarelli L, Campanile G. 2003. Comparison of pregnancy rates with two estrus synchronization protocols in Italian Mediterranean Buffalo cows. Theriogenology, 60:125-133.

Pierson R, Ginther OJ. 1988. Follicular populations during the estrous cycle in heifers. Time of selection of the ovulatory follicle. Anim Reprod Sci, 16:81-95.

Rajamahendran R, Robinson J, Desbottes S, Walton J. 1989. Temporal relationships among estrus, body temperature, milk yield, progesterone and luteinizing hormone levels, and ovulation in dairy cows. Theriogenology, 31:1173-1182.

Rossi P, Vecchio D, Neglia G, Di Palo R, Gasparrini B, Michael JD, Campanile G. 2014. Seasonal fluctuations in the response of Italian Mediterranean buffaloes to synchronization of ovulation and timed artificial insemination. Theriogenology, 82:132-137.

Salzano A, Spagnuolo MS, Lombardi P, Vecchio D, Limone A, Censi SB, Neglia G. 2017. Influences of different space allowance on reproductive performances in buffalo. Anim Reprod, 14:429-436

Shenhe L, Jun L, Zipeng L, Tingxian D, Rehman ZU, Zichao Z, Liguo Y. 2018. Effect of season and breed on physiological and blood parameters in buffaloes. J Dairy Res, 85:181-184

Soede N, Wetzels C, Zondag W, De Koning M, Kemp B. 1995. Effects of time of insemination relative to ovulation, as determined by ultrasonography, on fertilization rate and accessory sperm count in sows. J Reprod Fertil, 104:099-106.

Srivastava S, Sahni K, Mohan G. 1998. Time of insemination and conception in cows and buffaloes under field condition. Indian J Anim Sci, 68:129-130.

Tesh J. 1969. Effects of the ageing of rabbit spermatozoa in utero on fertilization and prenatal development. J Reprod Fertil, 20:299-306.

Trimberger GW. 1948. Breeding efficiency in dairy cattle from artificial insemination at various intervals before and after ovulation. Nebr Agr Exp Sta Res Bul, 153:3-25.

Vishwanath R. 2003. Artificial insemination: the state of the art. Theriogenology, 59:571-584.

Warriach HM, Ahmad N. 2007. Follicular waves during the oestrous cycle in Nili-Ravi buffaloes undergoing spontaneous and PGF 2α-induced luteolysis. Anim Reprod Sci, 101:332-337.

Warriach HM, Channa AA, Ahmad N. 2008. Effect of oestrus synchronization methods on oestrus behaviour, timing of ovulation and pregnancy rate during the breeding and low breeding seasons in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Anim Reprod Sci, 107:62-67.

Yanagimachi R. 1981. Mechanisms of fertilization in mammals. Fertilization and embryonic development in vitro. Springer, 81-182.

Yousuf MR, Martins JPN, Husnain A, Riaz U, Riaz H, Sattar A, Javed K, Ahmad N. 2015. Effect of oestradiol benzoate on oestrus intensity and pregnancy rate in CIDR treated anoestrus nulliparous and multiparous buffalo. Anim Reprod Sci, 159:104-108.

5c07e3480e88252d760e27c2 animreprod Articles
Links & Downloads

Anim Reprod

Share this page
Page Sections