Programs for fixed-time artificial insemination in South American beef cattle
Gabriel A. Bó, Emilio Huguenine, José Javier de la Mata, Richard Núñez-Olivera, Pietro S. Baruselli, Alejo Menchaca
Fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) has been widely applied in South America within the last 20 years for the genetic improvement of commercial beef herds. Most FTAI treatments for beef cattle used in South America are based on the use of progesterone (P4) releasing devices and estradiol to synchronize follicle wave emergence, with pregnancies per AI (P/AI) ranging from 40 to 60%. More recent protocols focusing on extending the interval from device removal to FTAI (i.e. increasing the growing period of the ovulatory follicle) have been reported to improve P/AI in beef cattle. These new protocols and the more traditional FTAI protocols have also been adapted for use with sexed-sorted semen with acceptable P/AI in beef cattle. Finally, color-flow Doppler ultrasonography has been incorporated recently to determine the vascularity of the CL and thereby detect pregnancy as early as Day 22 after the first AI for re-synchronization of ovulation for a second FTAI in non-pregnant animals. In summary, FTAI protocols have facilitated the widespread application of AI in South American beef cattle by allowing for the insemination and re-insemination of herds during a defined breeding season, without the necessity of clean up bulls to achieve high pregnancy rates.
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